## Note

This is a collection of my undergraduate assignments that I translated to English myself in the Basic Electrical Power Engineering course. This assignment has never been published anywhere and I, as the author and copyright holder, license this assignment customized CC-BY-SA where anyone can share, copy, republish, and sell on condition to state my name as the author and notify that the original and open version available here.

## General Electric Energy Supply Process

### Electrical Conversion

Conversion in the field of electric power is the conversion from other energy to electrical energy. This conversion is usually used to generate electricity, producing this electricity is called a generator, in other words as a producer. Here are example sources of electrical energy: Hydroelectric Power Plant, Steam Power Plant, Nuclear Power Plant, Gas Power Plant, and Diesel Power Plant. Other generators include: Solar Power, Wind Power, Chemical Reactions, Geothermal Energy and others.

Nuclear Energy etc → Reactor Converter etc → Alternate → Transformer Step Up; Reactor Converter etc → Generate

### Electric Transmission

Electric transmission is the process of sending electricity. The delivery goes through the power grid.

Step-Up Transformer → High Voltage Network → Step-Down Transformer → Medium Voltage Network → Factory

### Electricity Distribution

Electricity distribution is the process of sharing electricity to consumers.

Medium Voltage Network → Step-Down Transformer → Low Voltage Network → Consumer

## Basic Theories

### Ohm Law

Ohm law: V=IR, V = voltage (volt), I = current (ampere), R = resistance (ohm).

### Transformator

Transformers are devices for changing the voltage. The step-down transformer lowers the voltage while the step-up transformer increases the voltage.

### Magnetic Field

dH = (IdI x aR)/(4πR2)(A/m), H = ∮(IdI x aR)/(4πR2)

I = current (A), dl = length, aR = vector, R = vector length.

Magnetic Field Flux

B = dΦ/ds = μH, Φ = ∮Bds

B = magnetic field flux density (weber/area), Φ=magnetic field flux (weber), ds = area (m2), H = magnetic field strength (A/m)

### Direct Current Generator Working Principle

The working principle of a direct current generator is based on Faraday's law: e = -N dΦ/dt

Where, N: number of turns, Φ: magnetic flux, e: induced voltage, emf (electromotive force).

The commutator functions as a switch. The commutator is in the form of a split ring attached to the end of the anchor. When the anchor rotates, the ring will rotate. When the coil has rotated half a turn, the brush will close the ring gap so that the voltage becomes zero. Because the ring continues to rotate, the gap will open again and create tension again. If the voltage period is the same as the ring rotation period, the voltage that arises is the full wave direct current voltage.

## Some Exercises

Ish = 600V/75Ω = 8A, I = 300000W/600V = 500A, Ia = Ish+I = 8A+500A = 508A

∆Vtotal = ∆V+∆Va = Ia R+Ia Ra = Ia (R+Ra) = 508A(0.03Ω+0.02Ω) = 25.4V

emfV = V+∆Vtotal = 600V+20.4V = 625.4V

emfP = (emfV)(Ia) = (625.4V)(508A) = 317703.2W

2. Transformer 1ɸ is given a 50 Hz supply step down 2200 V → 250 V with an area of 36 cm2 and a flux density of 6 wb/m2, look for the primary and secondary windings.

Known:

f = 50 Hz

E1 = 2200 V

E2 = 250 V

A = 0.0036 m2

Bm = 6 wb/m2

N1 and N2

Φm = (Bm)(A)=(6 wb/m2)(0.0036 m2) = 0.0216 wb

E = (4.44)(f)(N)(Φm) = (4.44)(f)(N)(Bm)(A)

Primary Winding = E1/((4.44)(f)(Φm)) = 2200/((4.44)(50 Hz)(0.0216 wb)) = 458.79

Secondary Winding = E2/((4.44)(f)(Φm)) = 250/((4.44)(50 Hz)(0.0216 wb)) = 52.135

3. The power of the transformer 1ɸ is 25 KVI, the primary winding is 500, the secondary winding is 50, the primary winding is connected to a voltage of 3000 V with a frequency of 50 Hz. Find the load currents in the primary and secondary winding, secondary emf and maximum flux. (ignore the drop voltage)

Known

P = 25 VI

N1 = 500

N2 = 50

E1 = 3000 V

f = 50 Hz

I1, I2, E2 and Φm

E = (4.44)(f)(N)(Φm) = (4.44)(f)(N)(Bm)(A)

Φm = (4.44)(f)(N1)/E1 = (4.44)(50 Hz)(500)/(3000 V) = 37 wb

E2/E1 = (4.44)(f)(N2)(Φm)/(4.44)(f)(N1)(Φm) = N2/N1

E2=N2/N1 E1 = 500/50 3000 V = 30000V

P=(V)(I)

I1 = P/E1 = (25 W)/(3000 V) = 8.3mA

I2 = P/E2 = (25 W)/(30000 V) = 0.83mA

## Catatan

Ini merupakan kumpulan tugas-tugas S1 saya di mata kuliah Dasar Teknik Tenaga Listrik. Tugas ini tidak pernah dipublikasi dimanapun dan saya sebagai penulis dan pemegang hak cipta melisensi tugas ini customized CC-BY-SA dimana siapa saja boleh membagi, menyalin, mempublikasi ulang, dan menjualnya dengan syarat mencatumkan nama saya sebagai penulis dan memberitahu bahwa versi asli dan terbuka tersedia disini.

## Proses Pengadaan Energi Listrik Secara Umum

### Konversi Listrik

Konversi dalam bidang tenaga listrik adalah konversi dari energi lain ke energi listrik. Konversi ini biasanya dipakai dalam menghasilkan listrik, penghasil listrik ini disebut pembangkit. Dengan kata lain sebagai produsen. Sebagai sumber energi listrik yang sudah resmi antara lain: PLTA (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air), PLTU (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap), PLTN (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir), PLTG (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Gas), PLTD (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Diesel) dan lain-lain. Pembangkit lain antara lain: Tenaga Surya, Tenaga Angin, Reaksi Kimia, Panas Bumi dan lain-lain.

Energi Nuklir dll → Converter Reaktor dll → Alternate → Transformator Step Up; Converter Reaktor dll → Generate

### Transmisi Listrik

Transmisi listrik adalah proses pengiriman listrik. Pengiriman melewati jaringan listrik.

Transformator Step-Up → Jaringan Tegangan Tinggi → Transformator Step-Down → Jaringan Tegangan Menengah → Pabrik

### Distribusi Listrik

Jaringan Tegangan Menengah → Transformator Step-Down → Jaringan Tegangan Rendah → Konsumen

## Teori-Teori Dasar

### Hukum Ohm

Hukum ohm: V=IR, V = tegangan (volt), I = arus (ampere), R = hambatan (ohm).

### Trafo (Transformator)

Transformator (trafo) adalah alat untuk mengubah tegangan. Trafo step-down menurunkan tegangan sedangan trafo step-up meningkatkan tegangan.

### Magnetic Field

dH = (IdI x aR)/(4πR2)(A/m), H = ∮(IdI x aR)/(4πR2)

I = arus (A), dl = panjang, aR = vektor, R = panjang vektor.

Flux Medan Magnet

B = dΦ/ds = μH, Φ = ∮Bds

B = kerapatan flux medan magnet (weber/area), Φ=flux medan magnet (weber), ds = luar area (m2), H = kuat medan magnet (A/m)

### Prinsip Kerja Generator Arus Searah

Prinsip kerja suatu generator arus searah berdasarkan hukum Faraday: e = -N dΦ/dt

Dimana, N: jumlah lilitan, Φ: fluksi magnet, e: Tegangan imbas, ggl(gaya gerak listrik).

Komutator berfungsi sebagai saklar. Komutator berupa cicin belah yang dipasang pada ujung jangkar. Bila jangkar berputar maka cincin akan berputar. Bila kumparan telah berputar setengah putaran, sikat akan menutup celah cincin sehingga tegangan menjadi nol. Karena cincin berputar terus, maka celah akan terbuka lagi dan timbul tegangan lagi. Bila perioda tegangan sama dengan perioda perputaran cincin, tegangan yang timbul adalah tegangan arus searah gelombang penuh.

## Soal-Soal

Ish = 600V/75Ω = 8A, I = 300000W/600V = 500A, Ia = Ish+I = 8A+500A = 508A

∆Vtotal = ∆V+∆Va = Ia R+Ia Ra = Ia (R+Ra) = 508A(0.03Ω+0.02Ω) = 25.4V

emfV = V+∆Vtotal = 600V+20.4V = 625.4V

emfP = (emfV)(Ia) = (625.4V)(508A) = 317703.2W

2. Trafo 1ɸ diberikan supply 50 Hz step down 2200 V→250 V dengan luas 36 cm2 dan kerapatn fluks 6 wb/m2, carilah belitan primer dan sekunder.

Diketahui:

f = 50 Hz

E1 = 2200 V

E2 = 250 V

A = 0.0036 m2

Bm = 6 wb/m2

Ditanya:

N1 dan N2

Jawab

Φm = (Bm)(A)=(6 wb/m2)(0.0036 m2) = 0.0216 wb

E = (4.44)(f)(N)(Φm) = (4.44)(f)(N)(Bm)(A)

belitan primer = E1/((4.44)(f)(Φm)) = 2200/((4.44)(50 Hz)(0.0216 wb)) = 458.79

belitan sekunder = E2/((4.44)(f)(Φm)) = 250/((4.44)(50 Hz)(0.0216 wb)) = 52.135

3. Daya trafo 1ɸ adalah 25 KVI, belitan primer adalah 500, belitan sekunder adalah 50, belitan primer dihubungkan dengan tegangan 3000 V dengan frekuensi 50 Hz. Carilah arus beban pada belitan primer dan sekunder, emf sekunder dan fluks maksimal. (abaikan drop voltage)

Diketahui

P = 25 VI

N1 = 500

N2 = 50

E1 = 3000 V

f = 50 Hz

Ditanya

I1, I2, E2 dan Φm

Jawab

E = (4.44)(f)(N)(Φm) = (4.44)(f)(N)(Bm)(A)

Φm = (4.44)(f)(N1)/E1 = (4.44)(50 Hz)(500)/(3000 V) = 37 wb

E2/E1 = (4.44)(f)(N2)(Φm)/(4.44)(f)(N1)(Φm) = N2/N1

E2=N2/N1 E1 = 500/50 3000 V = 30000V

P=(V)(I)

I1 = P/E1 = (25 W)/(3000 V) = 8.3mA

I2 = P/E2 = (25 W)/(30000 V) = 0.83mA

## Note

This is my undergraduate assignment that I translated to English myself in the Electrical Measurement course where the task is to write an essay on Oscilloscopes. This assignment has never been published anywhere and I, as the author and copyright holder, license this assignment customized CC-BY-SA where anyone can share, copy, republish, and sell on condition to state my name as the author and notify that the original and open version available here.

## Chapter 1 Introduction

### 1.1 Background

Have you ever seen a line drawing that goes up and down, up and down again? Have you ever heard of signals, waves, vibrations, alternating current (AC)? Maybe on television you have seen the form of a signal displayed by news or educational media. Maybe you don't know the measuring instrument that can display the wave image. The measuring instrument is called an oscilloscope.

### 1.2 Objective

• Know the term Oscilloscope.
• Know the basic circuit of the Oscilloscope.
• Identifying the outside (buttons) of the Oscilloscope.
• Know the basic ways of using the Oscilloscope.
• Get to know the various uses of the Oscilloscope.

### 1.3 Scope of Material

• Understanding oscilloscope.
• Basic oscilloscope diagram.
• Buttons on the Oscilloscope.
• An introduction to measurements on an oscilloscope.
• Oscilloscope applications in the outside world.

## Chapter 2 Basic Theory

### 2.1 Vibration

The vibrations can be in the form of up and down, left-right, left side - right side, back and forth. In life we feel vibrations are a continuous back and forth motion, for example earthquakes.

### 2.2 Frequency

Frequency is defined as the number of vibrations that are carried out every second. The unit of frequency in the International System is hertz, abbreviated as Hz. This name is taken from the last name from the figure of Physics, whose name is Heinrich Hertz.

hertz = vibration/second, frequency = vibration/time

### 2.3 Period

Period is the time it takes to perform 1 vibration.

f swing takes 1 second,

2f swing takes 2 seconds,

100f swing takes 100 seconds,

f/2 swings take 1/2 second,

f/100 swings take 1/100 of a second,

f/f=1 swing, takes 1/f second,

T = 1/f

## Chapter 3 Discussion

### 3.1 What is an oscilloscope?

An oscilloscope is an electronic device that can provide an image on the screen (display) of the electrical signal connected to its input. Oscilloscopes usually have an input signal gate and an output signal. Oscilloscopes generally display images in 2 dimensions, the screen is in boxes. There are also 3 dimensions. A wave is converted into electricity, after which it can be read on an oscilloscope. With an oscilloscope it is possible to see the shape of the wave equation of an electrical signal.

### 3.3 Name the buttons on the Oscilloscope?

• Circle 1 represents the signal source (CH1, CH2, LINE, and EXT).
• Circle 2 represents Channel 1 input.
• Circle 3 indicates which channel is displayed on the screen (CH1, CH2, DUAL, and ADD).
• Circle 4 represents the input signal type (AC, GND, and DC).
• Circle 5 represents Volts/Div.
• Circle 6 indicates Vertical Position.
• Circle 7 represents Horizontal Position.
• Circle 8 represents Time/Div (time per square on the oscilloscope screen).
• Grid screen (boxes), the lines of the squares, either horizontal or vertical, are called divs.

### 3.4 How to basically use it?

An explanation for the schematic of the analog oscilloscope working principle:

• When we connect a probe to a circuit, a voltage signal flows from the probe to the vertical arrangement of an oscilloscope system (Vertical System), an Attenuator will attenuate the input voltage signal while the Amplifier will amplify the input voltage signal. This setting is determined by us when moving the "Volt/Div" knob on the Oscilloscope user interface.
• The voltage that comes out of the vertical system is then forwarded to the vertical deflection plate on a CRT (Catode Ray Tube), the voltage signal that is inserted into this plate will later be used by the CRT to move the electron beams in a vertical plane only (up or down).
• Up to this point, it can be concluded that the Vertical System on an analog oscilloscope functions to adjust the amplitude appearance of the observed signal.
• Then the signal enters the vertical deflection plate. The voltage signal applied here causes the electron beams to move. A positive voltage causes the electron beam to move upwards, while a negative voltage causes the electrons to be pushed down.
• The signal that comes out of the Vertical System is also directed to the Trigger System to trigger the sweep generator to create what is called a "Horizontal Sweep", namely the movement of electrons in a sweep - sweeping left and right - in a horizontal dimension or in other words, an expression for the action that causes electrons to move very quickly across the screen in a certain time interval. The movement of electrons is very fast (can reach 500,000 times per second) which causes the electrons to appear as lines on the screen (for example, like a fan on a fan that looks like a circle when it rotates).
• This setting of the number of times the electrons move across the screen is what we can think of as the Period/Frequency setting that appears on the screen, the concrete form is when we move the Time/Div knob on the Oscilloscope.
• Arrangement of the vertical and horizontal planes together finally can represent the observed voltage signal in the form of a graph that we can see on the CRT screen.

### 3.5 How is the application of the oscilloscope?

Some of the oscilloscope functions include::

• Measure the amount of voltage and its relationship to time.
• Measures the frequency of the oscillating signal.
• Checks the path of a signal on an electrical circuit.
• Differentiate between AC and DC currents.
• Determines the noise in an electrical circuit.
• Used in the engineering industry.
• Used in the scientific field.
• Used in the telecommunications sector.

## Chapter 4 Closing

### 4.1 Conclusion

An oscilloscope is a device that displays electrical signals in the form of waves. Oscilloscopes are used in various fields. Provided that something can be defined in the form of waves.

## Catatan

Ini merupakan tugas S1 saya di mata kuliah Pengukuran Listrik dimana tugasnya adalah menulis essai mengenai Osiloskop. Tugas ini tidak pernah dipublikasi dimanapun dan saya sebagai penulis dan pemegang hak cipta melisensi tugas ini customized CC-BY-SA dimana siapa saja boleh membagi, menyalin, mempublikasi ulang, dan menjualnya dengan syarat mencatumkan nama saya sebagai penulis dan memberitahu bahwa versi asli dan terbuka tersedia disini.

## BAB 1 Pendahuluan

### 1.1 Latar Belakang

Pernahkah anda melihat bentuk gambar garis yang naik-turun, naik lagi dan turun lagi? Pernahkah anda mendengar mengenai sinyal, gelombang, getaran, arus listrik bolak-balik (Alternating Current (AC))? Mungkin di televisi anda pernah melihat bentuk sinyal yang ditampilkan berita atau media edukasi. Mungkin anda belum mengetahui alat ukur yang dapat menampilkan gambar gelombang tersebut. Alat ukur tersebut disebut Osiloskop.

### 1.2 Tujuan

• Mengenal istilah Osiloskop.
• Mengetahui rangkaian dasar Osiloskop.
• Mengenal bagian luar (tombol-tombol) Osiloskop.
• Mengetahui cara dasar menggunakan Osiloskop.
• Mengenal berbagai macam kegunaan Osiloskop.

### 1.3 Ruang Lingkup Materi

• Pengertian Osiloskop.
• Diagram dasar Osiloskop.
• Applikasi Osiloskop di dunia luar.

## BAB 2 Dasar Teori

### 2.1 Getaran

Getaran dapat berupa naik-turun, kiri-kanan, samping kiri – samping kanan, maju-mundur. Dalam kehidupan yang kita rasakan getaran adalah gerakan bolak-balik terus menerus, contohnya gempa bumi.

### 2.2 Frekuensi

Frekuensi diartikan sebagai banyaknya getaran yang dilakukan setiap detik. Satuan frekuensi dalam SI (Sistem Internasional) adalah hertz, disingkat Hz. Nama ini diambil dari nama belakang tokoh Fisika, yang bernama Heinrich Hertz.

hertz = getaran/detik, frekuensi = getaran/waktu

### 2.3 Periode

Periode adalah waktu yang diperlukan untuk melakukan 1 getaran.

f ayunan membutuhkan waktu 1 detik,

2f ayunan membutuhkan waktu 2 detik,

100f ayunan membutuhkan waktu 100 detik,

f/2 ayunan membutuhkan waktu 1/2 detik,

f/100 ayunan membutuhkan waktu 1/100 detik,

f/f = 1 ayunan, membutuhkan waktu 1/f detik,

T = 1/f

## BAB 3 Pembahasan

### 3.1 Apa itu Osiloskop?

Osiloskop merupakan suatu peralatan elektronik yang dapat memberikan gambar pada layarnya (display), dan sinyal listrik yang dihubungkan pada inputnya. Osciloscope biasanya mempunyai gerbang sinyal input dan sinyal output. Osciloscope umumnya menampilkan gambar dalam 2 dimensi, layarnya kotak-kotak, adapun yang 3 dimensi. Suatu gelombang di konversi menjadi listrik, setelah itu dapat dibaca pada osciloscope. Dengan osiloskop memungkinkan untuk melihat bentuk dari persamaan gelombang suatu sinyal listrik.

### 3.3 Sebutkan tombol-tombol pada Osiloskop?

• Lingkaran 1 menyatakan sumber signal (CH1, CH2, LINE, dan EXT).
• Lingkaran 2 menyatakan input Channel 1.
• Lingkaran 3 menyatakan channel mana yang ditampilkan pada layar (CH1, CH2, DUAL, dan ADD).
• Lingkaran 4 menyatakan jenis signal input (AC, GND, dan DC).
• Lingkaran 5 menyatakan Volts/Div.
• Lingkaran 6 menyatakan Vertical Position (posisi secara vertikal).
• Lingkaran 7 menyatakan Horizontal Position (posisi secara horizontal).
• Lingkaran 8 menyatakan Time/Div (waktu per kotak pada layar osiloskop).
• Layar grid (kotak-kotak), garisnya kotaknya baik garis horizontal ataupun vertical disebut div.

### 3.4 Bagaimana cara menggunakannya (dasar saja)?

Penjelasan untuk skema prinsip kerja osiloskop analog:

• Saat kita menghubungkan probe ke sebuah rangkaian, sinyal tegangan mengalir dari probe menuju ke pengaturan vertikal dari sebuah sistem osiloskop (Vertical System), sebuah Attenuator akan melemahkan sinyal tegangan input sedangkan Amplifier akan menguatkan sinyal tegangan input. Pengaturan ini ditentukan oleh kita saat menggerakkan kenop "Volt/Div" pada user interface Osiloskop.
• Tegangan yang keluar dari sistem vertikal lalu diteruskan menuju pelat defleksi vertikal pada sebuah CRT (Catode Ray Tube), sinyal tegangan yang dimasukkan ke pelat ini nantinya akan digunakan oleh CRT untuk menggerakkan berkas-berkas elektron secara bidang vertikal saja (ke atas atau ke bawah).
• Sampai point ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa Vertical System pada osiloskop analog berfungsi untuk mengatur penampakan Amplitudo dari sinyal yang diamati.
• Selanjutnya sinyal masuk ke dalam pelat defleksi vertikal. Sinyal tegangan yang teraplikasikan disini menyebabkan berkas-berkas elektron bergerak. Tegangan positif mengakibatkan berkas elektron bergerak ke atas, sedangkan tegangan negatif menyebabkan elektron terdorong ke bawah.
• Sinyal yang keluar dari Vertical System tadi juga diarahkan ke Trigger System untuk memicu sweep generator dalam menciptakan apa yang disebut dengan "Horizontal Sweep" yaitu pergerakan elektron secara sweep - menyapu ke kiri dan ke kanan - dalam dimensi horizontal atau dengan kata lain adalah sebuah ungkapan untuk aksi yang menyebabkan elektron untuk bergerak sangat cepat menyeberangi layar dalam suatu interval waktu tertentu. Pergerakan elektron yang sangat cepat (dapat mencapai 500,000 kali per detik) inilah yang menyebabkan elektron tampak seperti garis pada layar (misalnya seperti daun kipas pada kipas angin yang tampak seperti lingkaran saja saat berputar).
• Pengaturan berapa kali elektron bergerak menyebrangi layar inilah yang dapat kita anggap sebagai pengaturan Periode/Frekuensi yang tampak pada layar, bentuk konkretnya adalah saat kita menggerakkan kenop Time/Div pada Osiloskop.
• Pengaturan bidang vertikal dan horizontal secara bersama-sama akhirnya dapat merepresentasikan sinyal tegangan yang diamati ke dalam bentuk grafik yang dapat kita lihat pada layar CRT.

### 3.5 Bagaimana applikasi pada Osiloskop?

Beberapa fungsi osiloskop antara lain untuk:

• Mengukur besar tegangan listrik dan hubungannya terhadap waktu.
• Mengukur frekuensi sinyal yang berosilasi.
• Mengecek jalannya suatu sinyal pada sebuah rangkaian listrik.
• Membedakan arus AC dengan arus DC.
• Mengetahui noise pada sebuah rangkaian listrik.

## BAB 4 Penutup

### 4.1 Kesimpulan

Osiloskop adalah suatu alat yang menampilkan sinyal listrik dalam bentuk gelombang. Osiloskop digunakan diberbagai bidang. Asalkan sesuatu tersebut dapat didefinisikan dalam bentuk gelombang.

## Note

This is my undergraduate assignment in the Electrical Measurement course where the task is to write an essay on Megger or Mega Ohm Meter. This assignment has never been published anywhere and I, as the author and copyright holder, license this assignment customized CC-BY-SA where anyone can share, copy, republish, and sell on condition to state my name as the author and notify that the original and open version available here.

## Chapter 1 Introduction

### 1.1 Background

Maybe you've heard an electrician perform a "Megger". The term "megger" is defined as a measurement or test of electrical insulation. Whereas Megger is a company that provides measuring devices in the field of electricity which is well known in the field of electrical insulation measurements. According to the author, the term someone doing "Megger" is a misnomer. Megger is not a verb, which should not be included in the dictionary.

Many people confuse this saying, because the Megger company is so well known. The tools we use are made by the Megger company. The electrical insulation test is sometimes called the Megger Test.

### 1.2 Objective

• Getting to know Megger.
• Get to know Megger's main product.
• Getting to know other Megger products.

### 1.3 Scope of Material

• History of Megger.
• Megger Companies.
• Megger's main product.
• Another product of Megger.
• Today's meggers.

## Chapter 2 Basic Theory

The contents of this chapter are the same as the previous assignments regarding AVO Meters, except:

### 2.6 Electrical Insulation In Brief

Materials that are difficult to conduct electric current are called electric insulators. Examples of electrical insulators that are widely known to people are polymer materials, for example rubber. Some say strong electrical insulators are dielectrics. True, the dielectric is a material that can polarize (break up the combined charges). There is another sense that an electrical insulator is one where there is no electricity. The causes of this material being an insulator, among others, the absence of space or the fullness of the atomic nucleus against the electrons, so that the electrons cannot enter, the range of one atom to another is too wide, so that the electrons are difficult to flow (requires large energy), and there may still be other reasons for this. You can study the properties of atoms in chemistry.

Why do scientists need to develop electrical insulating materials? The most basic is the safety factor. Touching electricity with a voltage higher than 60V can jeopardize safety. This can happen intentionally or accidentally. Therefore, the copper cable in every house to carry the electric current must be covered with a polymer material, usually rubber so that it is not dangerous. In ancient times paper and textiles were used instead of rubber. Refrigerator, TV, Computer, Laptop, Mouse, Keyboard, Rise Cooker, light button, Telephone, Hand Phone, Charger and all electronic items we hold use electrical insulation so that we can touch, otherwise we will be electrocuted. The keyboard buttons on our computers use insulation in the form of mica, now it has switched to rubber.

Electrical insulation problems are a major cause of fires. If the two wires on the power pole touch, a short circuit can occur because the voltage is too large, after which it can cause fires and other harmful things. Therefore they must be isolated.

## Chapter 3 Discussion

### 3.1 What and how is the insulation tested or why do many people often call it the Megger test?

The megger test in question is a test using a megometer (mega ohm meter). This test is a test of insulation (electrical insulation) of an object. The tool that is often used is the tool owned by the Megger company, that's why people often mention Megger Test. This test is done by applying tension to an object. The test will be seen by looking for the leakage current. We recommend that you use low voltage first to be careful, so as not to damage the material. If the applied voltage is higher than the object can accept, its insulation properties can be damaged.

How to Use:

1. Ensure that the DDA-3000/6000 Megger test set is in the "off" position. Connect the test set to a power source.
2. Close the circuit to be tested. Make sure that the line side circuit is disconnected or de-energized.
3. Connect the output terminal of the test set to one pole to be tested. Turn the test set "on." The control panel display should be on.
4. Turn the vernier control to the desired flow. Select "Maintained Output" mode. Select the "Continuous ammeter" mode.
5. Press the "Start" button. Take readings and compare them to the manufacturer's specifications.

To test the smoothness of the electrical fault in a conductor:

1. Use the voltage selector switch on the Megger to set the Megger to the appropriate test voltage, usually the next highest voltage above the rated voltage of the equipment under test. The voltage range for a Megger may be as low as 250 VAC, depending on the Megger model, and as high as 1,000 VAC.
2. To locate a short or open circuit, connect the Megger cable to the Megger, then connect one resulting circuit and the other to a reliable ground. All connecting cables must be connected before the "Test" button is pressed.
3. Turn the Megger by pressing the "Test" button. "Test" is pressed for one minute, then ends the test by releasing the button. If the circuit is intact, the resistance reading will remain steady or decrease (otherwise no resistance will be seen).
4. Disconnect the test wire from the tested circuit only after the voltage has dropped to zero. Some circuits may be capacitive and maintain significant costs after the test has ended.

### 3.4 How is the Megger company today?

Megger's products have been used all over the world. Products have been uploaded to the web www.megger.com and are constantly growing. Not only providing products but also providing training in the field of electricity, especially electrical measurement, providing manuals/books on how to measure electricity and others. Megger production is now in Dallas, Texas; Valley Forge, Pennsylvania and Dover, England. Offices have spread all over the world, in the U.S, Cananda, Mexico City, Mexico; Dover, England; Paris, France; Mumbai, India, and Bahrain. There are hundreds of sellers/distributors of products, manuals in multiple languages, software with multilingual displays and Megger workers who can work with consumers around the world.

## Chapter 4 Closing

### 4.1 Conclusion

Electrical insulation measurements really need to be known by every electrician. Megger (Megaohm Meter) is a tool that is often used. Megger has now grown into a company that offers a wide variety of electrical measuring instruments.

## Catatan

Ini merupakan tugas S1 saya di mata kuliah Pengukuran Listrik dimana tugasnya adalah menulis essai mengenai Megger atau Mega Ohm Meter. Tugas ini tidak pernah dipublikasi dimanapun dan saya sebagai penulis dan pemegang hak cipta melisensi tugas ini customized CC-BY-SA dimana siapa saja boleh membagi, menyalin, mempublikasi ulang, dan menjualnya dengan syarat mencatumkan nama saya sebagai penulis dan memberitahu bahwa versi asli dan terbuka tersedia disini.

## BAB 1 Pendahuluan

### 1.1 Latar Belakang

Mungkin anda pernah mendengar seorang teknisi listrik melakukan “Megger”. Istilah “Megger” yang dimaksud adalah pengukuran atau pengujian isolasi listrik. Padahal Megger adalah suatu perusahaan yang menyediakan alat pengukur dalam bidang listrik yang terkenal dalam bidang pengukuran isolasi listrik. Menurut penulis istilah seseorang melakukan “Megger” adalah ucapan yang keliru. Megger bukanlah suatu kata kerja, yang seharusnya tidak dimasukkan dalam kamus bahasa.

Banyak orang keliru dengan ucapan ini, karena perusahaan Megger begitu terkenal. Alat-alat yang kita gunakan dibuat oleh perusahaan Megger. Pengetesan isolasi listrik terkadang disebut Megger Test.

### 1.2 Tujuan

• Mengenal Megger.
• Mengenal produk pokok Megger.
• Mengenal produk Megger lainnya.

### 1.3 Ruang Lingkup Materi

• Sejarah Megger.
• Perusahaan Megger
• Produk utama Megger.
• Produk lain Megger.
• Megger zaman sekarang.

## BAB 2 Dasar Teori

Isi BAB ini sama seperti tugas sebelumnya mengenai AVO Meter, kecuali:

### 2.6 Isolasi Listrik Secara Singkat

Mengapa ilmuwan perlu mengembangkan bahan isolasi listrik, padahal udara sendiri merupakan isolator listrik yang kuat? Jika udara merupakan suatu konduktor maka listrik pasti akan merambat ke segala arah seperti listrik dialirkan pada air. Yang paling mendasar adalah faktor keamanan. Bila kita menyentuh listrik yang tegangannya lebih tinggi dari 60V dapat membahayakan keselamatan. Hal ini bisa terjadi secara sengaja maupun tidak sengaja. Oleh karena itu kabel tembaga di setiap rumah untuk mengalirkan arus listrik harus diselimuti oleh bahan polimer, biasanya karet agar tidak membahayakan. Zaman dahulu digunakan kertas dan tekstil daripada karet. Kulkas, TV, Komputer, Laptop, Mouse, Keyboard, Rise Cooker, tombol lampu, Telepon, Hand Phone, Charger dan semua barang elektronik yang kita pegang menggunakan bahan isolasi listrik agar dapat kita sentuh, jika tidak, kita akan kesetrum. Tombol-tombol keyboard pada komputer kita menggunakan isolasi berupa mika, sekarang sudah beralih ke karet.

Masalah isolasi listrik adalah penyebab utama terjadinya kebakaran. Jika kedua kabel pada tiang listrik bersentuhan, dapat terjadi konslet karena tegangan yang terlalu besar, setelah itu dapat menyebabkan kebakaran dan hal lain yang merugikan. Oleh karena itu mereka harus diisolasikan.

## BAB 3 Pembahasan

### 3.1 Apakah dan bagaimana pengetesan insulasi (isolasi listrik) atau banyak orang sering menyebut Megger test?

Megger test yang dimaksud adalah pengetesan menggunakan megometer (mega ohm meter). Test ini adalah test insulasi (isolasi listrik) terhadap suatu benda. Alat yang sering digunakan adalah alat milik perusahaan Megger, oleh sebab itu sering orang-orang menyebutkan Megger Test. Pengetesan ini dilakukan dengan cara memberikan tegangan terhadap suatu benda. Pengujian akan dilihat dengan cara mencari adanya arus yang bocor. Sebaiknya menggunakan tegangan rendah dulu untuk hati-hati, agar tidak merusak bahan tersebut. Jika tegangan yang diberikan terlalu tinggi dari yang dapat diterima benda maka sifat insulasinya bisa rusak.

Cara Menggunakan:

1. Pastikan bahwa DDA-3000/6000 Megger test set pada posisi "off." Hubungkan test set ke sumber listrik.
2. Tutup sirkuit yang akan diuji. Pastikan bahwa rangkaian garis samping (line side circuit) terputus atau de-energized.
3. Hubungkan terminal output dari tes diatur ke satu kutub yang akan diuji. Putar test set "on." Tampilan panel kontrol harus menyala.
4. Putar Vernier control untuk arus yang diinginkan. Pilih "Maintained Output " mode. Pilih "Continuous ammeter" mode.
5. Tekan tombol "Start". Catat pembacaan dan bandingkan dengan spesifikasi pabrikan.

Untuk menguji kelancaran listrik, gangguan pada konduktor:

1. Gunakan saklar pemilih tegangan pada Megger untuk mengatur Megger ke test voltage yang sesuai, biasanya tegangan tertinggi berikutnya di atas rating tegangan dari peralatan yang diuji. Rentang tegangan untuk Megger mungkin serendah 250 VAC, tergantung pada model Megger, dan setinggi 1.000 VAC.
2. Untuk mencari lokasi sirkuit pendek atau terbuka, hubungkan kabel Megger ke Megger, kemudian menghubungkan satu mengakibatkan sirkuit dan yang lainnya ke tanah yang dapat diandalkan. Semua kabel penghubung harus terhubung sebelum "Test" tombol ditekan.
3. Putar Megger dengan menekan tombol "Test"tombol. "Test" ditekan selama satu menit, kemudian mengakhiri test dengan melepaskan tombol. Jika rangkaian utuh, pembacaan resistansi akan tetap stabil atau menurun (jika tidak akan terlihat suatu hambatan/resistansi).
4. lepaskan kabel test dari sirkuit diuji hanya setelah tegangan telah turun menjadi nol. Beberapa sirkuit mungkin kapasitif dan mempertahankan biaya yang signifikan setelah ujian telah berakhir.

### 3.4 Bagaimana perusahaan Megger di zaman sekarang?

Produk milik Megger telah digunakan diseluruh belahan dunia. Produknya telah di upload di web www.megger.com dan terus berkembang. Tidak hanya menyediakan produk tetapi juga menyediakan pelatihan dalam bidang listrik khususnya pengukuran listrik, menyediakan manual/buku cara mengukur listrik dan lain-lainnya. Produksi Megger sekarang di Dallas, Texas; Valley Forge, Pennsylvania and Dover, England. Kantor telah tersebar di berbagai belahan dunia, di U.S, Cananda, Mexico City, Mexico; Dover, England; Paris, France; Mumbai, India, and Bahrain. Adapun ratusan penjual/penyebar produk, manual dalam 7 bahasa, software dengan multilingual display dan pekerja Megger yang dapat bekerja sama dengan konsumen di seluruh dunia.

## BAB 4 Penutup

### 4.1 Kesimpulan

Pengukuran insulasi listrik memang perlu diketahui setiap teknisi listrik. Megger (Megaohm Meter) adalah alat yang sering digunakan. Megger sekarang telah berkembang menjadi perusahaan yang manwarkan berbagai ragam alat pengukuran listrik.

## The applications maybe available on PC.

If you are lucky, the applications are available on PC. Back then, my friends invited me to play Brave Frontier Global and I only owned Galaxy Tab 2 GT-P3100 which was very slow at playing the game. Then, I checked the game was available on Windows Microsoft Store and I overjoyed that I was able to play on PC with a faster speed then any other Android device out there.

## Android Emulator

If the applications are not available on PC or any other consoles you have, then you really have to use an Android system. For example, Supercells games Clash of Clans and Clash Royale. There are various Android emulators out there, but the following emulators are the ones that I have tried. Leave a comment if you know about other Android Emulators.

### Bluestacks Windows

Bluestacks runs smooth, fast, and all is well when playing almost any Android games. Since it is currently exclusive to Windows, I do not need to explain much where like any other Windows software, download from their website and install. You can navigate everything easily yourself. What I can offer in this article are only mentioning that there is Bluestacks and few videos you can skim through to see how the performance is on my laptop.

### Genymotion Linux

As much as it went well on Bluestacks, unfortunately it is now available on Linux. I needed to find another, and the most popular one is Genymotion. This one needs an article because it is not like Windows where we only download and double click. Therefore, here are my following steps for installation based on my above video:

1. Go to Genymotion's website.
4. Install virtualbox from package manager (sudo apt install virtualbox) or download from their website and keep running it after by "sudo /etc/init.d/vboxdrv start".
5. sudo su
6. chmod +x yourgenymotion.bin
7. ./yourgenymotion.bin
8. exit
9. /opt/genymobile/genymotion or run genymotion from desktop
11. start virtual device
12. to install Google Playstore we need Genymotion arm translation and Open GApps.
13. Drag & drop arm translation to device screen.
14. reboot safemode
15. Drag & drop open gapps.
16. reboot again
19. open browser
22. install a game
23. reboot again
24. Enjoy the game

You may have no problem if you are using general Debian based Linux such as Ubuntu but for example in my case, I used Kali Linux, and frequently I had sound problems and lagging. The problem is either because of Genymotion or VirtualBox and I tried different devices and still it did not work.

## Android Operating System

If you cannot buy Windows and Android Emulators does not run well on your Linux, then your last option is installing Android Operating System (OS) on your PC. I did not follow the development of Android (OS) on PC but the last one I tried and worked well is Remix OS. Today Remix OS is discontinued and was proceed by other communities for example Phoenix OS which is better that there is a Windows installer and if you do not have Windows, you can download the .iso file and create a bootable usb installer using Etcher or other bootable driver creator. The installation step is almost the same as installing Ubuntu.

### Remix OS Virtual Machine

If you are curious or just not sure whether the installation will mess your system or not, you can try on a virtual machine first. If you just want to see of what is inside Remix OS, you can just download the pre-installed virtual machine image and import. I used VirtualBox here where you can install using "sudo apt install virtualbox" or download from its website. If you want to try the installation:

1. Get the .iso from its Website
2. Create New Virtual Machine
3. Settings
4. Storage
5. Insert .iso
6. Start Virtual Machine
7. Tab to edit
8. INSTALL=1 DEBUG=1
9. Write primary to desired partition
12. Reboot

### Remix OS on Physical Hard Drive

Android Emulator and Virtual Box did not work well for me and the option I have left is installing an Android OS on my physical drive. You can always do the Ubuntu way where you create a bootable USB drive and install from there with maybe the following difference:

• You need to create an empty partition beforehand. You can try using the default disk utility, used the better gparted, or through computer management in Windows.
• Press Tab on boot menu and add "INSTALL=1 DEBUG=1" to the line.
• Install the bootloader if you did not have a bootloader installed before but if you have such as Ubuntu you can choose to update the bootloader instead using the command "update-grub" with "os-prober" installed.

Another way is to install on existing Linux partition:

1. Create directory for Remix OS for example /remix
2. Create data directory for Remix OS for example /remix/data
3. copy all .iso data to /remix
4. edit /etc/grub.d/40_custom adding for example my config below
5. update-grub2
6. Reboot and start Remix OS
```menuentry 'Remix OS' --class android-x86 {
insmod part_gpt
search --file --no-floppy --set=root /remix/system.img
linux /remix/kernel root=/dev/ram0 androidboot.hardware=remix_x86_64 androidboot.selinux=permissive CMDLINE SERIAL=random
initrd /remix/initrd.img
}
```

If you are lazy like me in creating a bootable drive like on my above video, you can continue from the above step not for running Remix OS but for running the Remix OS installer and make sure you have an empty partition ready:

1. Continue from the above step until you meet the boot menu.
2. Tab on Remix OS menu selection and add the line INSTALL=1 DEBUG=1.
3. Install on the empty partitioned that you have prepared.
4. No need to install the bootloader.
5. Go back to your Linux and edit /etc/grub.d/40_custom and change the Remix OS configuration based on the new partition.
6. update-grub2
7. Reboot and start Remix OS
```menuentry 'Remix OS' --class android-x86 {
insmod part_gpt
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,msdos6)'
search --file --no-floppy --set=root /RemixOS/system
linux /RemixOS/kernel root=/dev/ram0 androidboot.hardware=remix_x86_64 androidboot.selinux=permissive SRC=/RemixOS CMDLINE SERIAL=random
initrd /RemixOS/initrd.img
}
```

Finally, I can play Clash Royale and Brave Frontier on my PC smoothly which was slow when using Genymotion Linux Emulator or VirtualBox.

I can even play both game simultaneously. Brave Frontier have auto battle feature.